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Nutrition

 

Do you know your nutrition?

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Why is proper nutrition so vital to your health?
The U.S. has the highest incidence of degenerative diseases of any developed country on earth. In addition, infectious diseases are coming back; antibiotics are getting less effective every year. Americans’ confidence in prescription drugs is weakening. The invention of a new drug will only treat the disease not cure it like a strong immune system. There will never be another Alexander Fleming; turns out penicillin was just a brief detour anyway. Bacteria have had 50 billion years to figure out how to adapt. The only way that anyone recovers from any illness is when the immune system overcomes the problem. Medications only treat an illness, your body will cure the illness. Minerals are just as important as all the other nutrients. So what are all those other nutrients and how much do you actually need? My guess is you’re not getting the amounts you need but don’t sweat it I gathered all this information and even give some suggestions to help you improve your lifestyle.
What are the 6 nutrient groups
All groups are necessary for complete cell function. Our only hope of better health is to do everything possible to build up our natural immune system. One of these preventative measures is nutritional supplementation. It may not be as dramatic as you think, but daily complete nutrition, not just Carbs, Proteins and Fats, but complete minerals and vitamin nutrition will pay off down the road. Healthier people, those with stronger immune systems, don’t get sick as often.
Your ability to interact with the world around you and remain healthy is dependent to a large extent on the healthy functioning of your immune system. Your immune system is responsible for fighting foreign invaders to your body, like pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and also for destroying cells within your body when they become cancerous. Poor nutrition has been shown to result in increased infections, to slow healing from injury and infections, and to increase susceptibility to symptoms and complications from immune system dysfunction. Science has shown that immune function often decreases as we age, and recent research suggests this decrease is also related to nutrition and may be slowed or even stopped by maintaining healthy nutrition. When discussing general healthy nutrition there are not only carbs, proteins and fats but you also have minerals, vitamins and yes the major nutrient group water.

  • Water
    There is no more important nutrient for our bodies than water. No other substance is as widely involved in the processes and make up of the body. A man’s body is about 60 percent water, and a woman’s is approximately 50 percent. Did you know that the human brain is about 75 percent water?
  • Vitamins
    Vitamins allow your body to grow and develop. They also play important roles in bodily functions such as metabolism, immunity and digestion. There are 13 essential vitamins, including vitamins A, C, D, E, and K and B vitamins such as riboflavin and folate.
  • Minerals
    Minerals are important basic building blocks for proper nutrition and health. Without them, other nutrients are unable to function properly.
  • Fats
    Fats provide your body with energy to carry out daily activities. They also serve as carriers to the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat deposited in your body acts as an insulator preventing loss of heat.
  • Protein
    Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life. It’s also needed to make up muscle tissue which in turn helps to keep our bodies active, strong, and healthy.
  • Carbohydrate
    Carbohydrates are the macro-nutrient that we need in the largest amounts. According to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the USDA, 45% – 65% of calories should come from carbohydrate.

Water
How much water should you drink each day? It’s a simple question with no easy answers. Studies have produced varying recommendations over the years, but in truth, your water needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and where you live.Although no single formula fits everyone, knowing more about your body’s need for fluids will help you estimate how much water to drink each day.The general rule is half your body weight in ounces and depending upon your climate and amount of activity you should add or subtract ounces.
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Vitamins
Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We get vitamins from food, because the human body either does not produce enough of them, or none at all. A vitamin is one of a group of organic substances, present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs, that are essential to normal metabolism; insufficient amounts in the diet may cause deficiency diseases.
There are 13 vital vitamins:

  • Vitamin A
    Most women need 2,333 International Units, or 700 micrograms, of vitamin A each day, while men need 3,000 IU or 900 micrograms, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. Chemical names (vitaminer) – retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene). Fat soluble. Deficiency may cause night-blindness and keratomalacia eye disorder that results in a dry cornea. Good sources include: liver, cod liver oil, carrot, broccoli, sweet potato, butter, kale, spinach, pumpkin, collard greens, some cheeses, egg, apricot, cantaloupe melon, milk.
  • Vitamin B1
    Vitamin B1, more commonly known as thiamin, is a water-soluble vitamin and part of the B vitamin family. B vitamins help support adrenal function, help calm and maintain a healthy nervous system, and are necessary for key metabolic processes. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for adults ages 19 years and older is 1.2mg daily for males and 1.1mg daily for females, taken orally.
  • Vitamin B2
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for is 1.0 mg for female adolescents between the ages of 14-18 years; 1.3 mg for male adolescents 14-18 years of age; 1.1 mg for female adults older than 18 years; and 1.3 mg for male adults older than 18 years. Chemical name (vitaminer) – riboflavin. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause ariboflavinosis. Good sources include: asparagus, bananas, persimmons, okra,chard, cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans.
  • Vitamin B3
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for adults is between 16 and 18 mg daily, with a maximum intake of 35 mg daily. Chemical names (vitaminer) – niacin, niacinamide. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause pellagra. Good sources include: liver, heart, kidney, chicken, beef, fish (tuna, salmon), milk, eggs, avocados, dates, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, asparagus, nuts, whole grains, legumes, mushrooms, and brewer’s yeast.
  • Vitamin B5
    The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine recommends a daily adequate intake (AI) of 5 mg for both men and women. Chemical name (vitaminer) – pantothenic acid. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause paresthesia. Good sources include: meats, whole grains (milling may remove it), broccoli, avocados, royal jelly, fish ovaries.
  • Vitamin B6
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for adult males between 19 and 50 years of age is 1.3 mg, and those over the age of 50 need 1.7 mg. Women between 19 and 50 years of age should take 1.3 mg, and those over 50 should take 1.5 mg. Chemical names (vitaminer) – pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause anemia, peripheral neuropathy. Good sources include: meats, bananas, whole grains, vegetables, and nuts. When milk is dried it loses about half of its B6. Freezing and canning can also reduce content.
  • Vitamin B7
    The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine recommends a daily adequate intake (AI) of 30 mcg in adults 19 years and older. Chemical name (vitaminer) – biotin. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause dermatitis, enteritis. Good sources include: egg yolk, liver, some vegetables.
  • Vitamin B9
    The daily U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 400 micrograms for adults. Dr. Weil recommends 400 mcg per day as part of a B-Complex supplement that contains a full spectrum of B vitamins, including biotin, thiamin, B12, riboflavin and niacin. Chemical names (vitaminer) – folic acid, folinic acid. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause pregnancy deficiency linked to birth defects. Good sources include: leafy vegetables, legumes, liver, baker’s yeast, some fortified grain products, sunflower seeds. Several fruits have moderate amounts, as does beer.
  • Vitamin B12
    Adults of all ages need 2.4 micrograms a day of vitamin B12; there is no upper tolerable limit for B12 because high doses are considered safe for most people. The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements notes that nutrients should come primarily from foods rather than supplements. Chemical names (vitaminer) – cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia Good sources include: fish, shellfish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy products. Some fortified cereals and soy products, as well as fortified nutritional yeast. Vegans are advised to take B12 supplements.
  • Vitamin C
    For adults, the recommended dietary reference intake for vitamin C is 65 to 90 milligrams (mg) a day, and the upper limit is 2,000 mg a day. Although too much dietary vitamin C is unlikely to be harmful, megadoses of vitamin C supplements may cause: Diarrhea. Chemical names (vitaminer) – ascorbic acid. Water soluble. Deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia. Good sources include: fruit and vegetables. The Kakadu plum and the camu camu fruit have the highest vitamin C contents of all foods. Liver also has vitamin C.
  • Vitamin D
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the daily Adequate Intake (AI) for adults is 5 mcg (200 IU) daily for males, female, and pregnant/lactating women under the age of 50. People 50 to 70 years old should get 10 mcg daily (400 IU) daily, and those over 70 should get 15 mcg daily (600 IU). Based on recent research, Dr. Weil recommends 2,000 IU of vitamin D per day. Chemical names (vitaminer) – ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol. Fat soluble. Deficiency may cause rickets, osteomalacia. Good sources: produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet B light from the sun or artificial sources. Also found in fatty fish, eggs, beef liver, and mushrooms.
  • Vitamin E
    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for adults older than 14-years is 15 mg (or 22.5 IU). Chemical names (vitaminer) – tocopherols, tocotrienols. Fat soluble. Deficiency is uncommon. May cause mild hemolytic anemia in newborns. Good sources include: kiwi fruit, almonds, avocado, eggs, milk, nuts, leafy green vegetables, unheated vegetable oils, wheat germ, and wholegrains.
  • Vitamin K
    Adults and children who eat a balanced diet that include the foods listed below will obtain enough vitamin K, and do not need supplementation. Chemical names (vitaminer) – phylloquinone, menaquinones. Fat soluble Deficiency may cause bleeding diathesis. Good sources include: leafy green vegetables, avocado, kiwi fruit. Parsley contain a lot of vitamin K.

Use this easy-to-reference diagram to learn about the vitamin groups and common foods containing them.

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Vitamin Wheel


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Minerals
There are 21 minerals that have been shown to have nutritive value for humans. Macro means more than 100mg per day. Trace usually means either the requirements are measured in micrograms or that the amount required has never been measured. Essential means the body can’t manufacture it: we must get it from the diet.
These are the Essential Minerals Broken down by Macrominerals and Trace minerals.
Macrominerals

    • Calcium
      The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out many important functions such as muscle contraction. Almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and hardness. The body also needs calcium for muscles to move and for nerves to carry messages between the brain and every body part. In addition, calcium is used to help blood vessels move blood throughout the body and to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body. The amount of calcium you need each day depends on your age. Adults 19–50 years 1,000 mg

Calcium is found in many foods. You can get recommended amounts of calcium by eating a variety of foods, including the following:

    • Milk, yogurt, and cheese are the main food sources of calcium for the majority of people in the United States.
    • Kale, broccoli, and Chinese cabbage are fine vegetable sources of calcium.
    • Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon, are fine animal sources of calcium.
    • Most grains (such as breads, pastas, and unfortified cereals), while not rich in calcium, add significant amounts of calcium to the diet because people eat them often or in large amounts.
    • Calcium is added to some breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice beverages, and tofu. To find out whether these foods have calcium, check the product labels.

Mineral Function

    • Muscle contraction
    • Bone building

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19–50 years M/F 1000mg per day
  • 51–70 years M 1000mg F 1200mg per day
    • Chlorine
      Chlorine is an essential mineral, mainly occurring in the body in compound form with sodium or potassium. Chlorine helps regulate the balance of acid and alkali in the blood as well as maintains the pressure that causes fluids to pass in and out of cell membranes until the concentration of dissolved particles is equal on both sides. Chlorine stimulates the liver to function as a filter, aids in keeping joints and tendons healthy, and helps in the distribution of hormones. Some forms of it are also found in kelp, dulse, rye flour, ripe olives, and sea greens. no recommended dietary allowance for chlorine because the average person’s daily salt intake usually provides between 3 and 9 grams. A deficiency in chlorine can cause hair and tooth loss, poor muscular contraction, and impaired digestion.

Mineral Function

    • Digestion
    • Normal blood pressure

Recommended daily requirement

  • Males and females age 14 to 50 years: 2.3* g/day
  • Males and females 51 to 70: 2.0* g/day
    • Sodium
      Sodium is an essential nutrient, but too much can cause health problems. The amount of sodium that you need each day depends on your age and health status. A balanced diet should supply all of the sodium you need without going over your recommended daily limits. Most Americans have no trouble getting the sodium they need. Sodium is an electrolyte, which helps your body regulate blood pressure, maintain fluid balance and absorb nutrients, such as amino acids, sugar and water, from the small intestine.

Mineral Function

    • Cell life
    • Waste removal

Recommended daily requirement

  • American Heart Association in 2010 chose to recommend that Americans eat less than 1,500 mg/day sodium as part of the definition of ideal cardiovascular health.
    • Potassium
      Less than 2 percent of American adults consume the amount of potassium that the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board recommends daily, reported a 2012 study in “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.” Potassium helps strengthen bones and is necessary for the maintenance of the electrochemical balance that makes nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction possible. Adequate potassium intake may also significantly decrease your risk of stroke, high blood pressure, osteoporosis and kidney stones. Adults over the age of 19, adolescents between 14 and 18 years old and pregnant women should consume 4,700 milligrams of potassium each day.

Mineral Function

    • Nerve transmission
    • Cell life
    • Normal blood pressure
    • Muscle contraction

Recommended daily requirement

  • 14 and older M/F 4700mg per day
    • Phosphorus
      Phosphorus is a mineral found in the body. About 85 percent of the phosphorus in the body is in bones. Phosphorus is the body’s next most abundant mineral after calcium. The body uses phosphorus to:

Phosphorus is absorbed in the small intestines and stored in the bones. Healthy kidneys get rid of the extra amounts not needed in the body. It is recommended that healthy adults get between 800 mg and 1,200 mg of phosphorus each day.
Mineral Function

    • Bone formation
    • Cell energy
    • Magnesium
    • Muscle contraction
    • Nerve transmission
    • Calcium metabolism
    • Enzyme cofactor

Recommended daily requirement

  • Adults: 700 mg/day
  • Pregnant or lactating women: Younger than 18: 1,250 mg/day. Older than 18: 700 mg/day
    • Magnesium
      Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids and laxatives). Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation [1-3]. Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis. It contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and the antioxidant glutathione.Magnesium is a crucially important mineral for optimal health, performing a wide array of biological functions, including but not limited to:

Mineral Function

    • Activating muscles and nerves
    • Creating energy in your body by activating adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • Helping digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
    • Serving as a building block for RNA and DNA synthesis
    • It’s also a precursor for neurotransmitters like serotonin

Recommended daily dose for Adults are:

  • 400 mg (m 19 to 30 years)
  • 420 mg (m 30+ years)
  • 310 mg (f 19 to 30 years)
  • 320 mg f 30+ years)
    • Sulfur
      Although there is no official RDA for sulfur, it is a critical nutrient. Daily intake is usually 800 to 900 milligrams of sulfur per day. Certain health conditions, such as arthritis and liver disorders, may be improved by increasing the intake of sulfur to 1,500 milligrams per day in supplemental form (most commonly as methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM). Sulfur-rich foods include eggs, legumes, whole grains, garlic, onions, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.

Mineral Function

    • Protein synthesis
    • Collagen cross-linking, bone and ligament structure

Recommended daily requirement

  • Daily intake is usually 800 to 900 milligrams of sulfur per day. Certain health conditions, such as arthritis and liver disorders, may be improved by increasing the intake of sulfur to 1,500 milligrams per day in supplemental form (most commonly as methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM).

Trace Minerals

    • Chromium
      Chromium is an essential mineral found in concentrations of 20 parts of chromium per 1 billion parts of blood. Chromium stimulates the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glucose for energy and the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; it appears to increase the effectiveness of insulin and its ability to handle glucose, preventing hypoglycemia or diabetes. The food containing chromium most available to humans are brewer’s yeast, liver, beef, whole-wheat bread, beets and beet sugar molasses, and mushrooms.
      There is no recommended daily dosage for chromium; the daily intake is estimated to range from 80-100 micrograms.

Mineral Function

    • Insulin action
    • Immune function

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19-50 years of age Men 35 mcg and Female 25 mcg per day
  • 50 or more Men 30mcg and Female 20mcg per day
    • Tin
      Tin is an ultratrace element in humans. It has been suggested that the amount of tin found in a healthy diet should be the value used to describe appropriate intake. Tin deficiency has been described in animals, but not in humans.
      Daily intakes of tin from air, food, and water are small. The natural content of tin in plant and animal tissues is low. Tin is present in natural water only in trace amounts. Diet is the primary source of tin in humans. The main source of dietary tin is foods that have been stored in tin-lined cans.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not established a recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for tin.

Mineral Function

    • Enzyme action
    • Manganese
    • Enzyme action

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19+ age M/F 10mg-20mg per day
    • Zinc
      Zinc is a nutrient that people need to stay healthy. Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. It helps the immune system fight off invading bacteria and viruses. The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA, the genetic material in all cells. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood, the body needs zinc to grow and develop properly. Zinc also helps wounds heal and is important for proper senses of taste and smell. Recommended Daily dose for Adults is (men) 11 mg Adults (women) 8 mg

Mineral Function

    • Antioxidant production
    • Cofactor for over 80 enzymes
    • Wound healing
    • Fat metabolism
    • Myelin
    • Insulin function
    • Tissue repair
    • Skin health

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19+ years Men 11mg and Female 8mg
    • Vanadium
      Vanadium is a trace mineral that is found in many foods. Scientists aren’t sure, but your body may need vanadium in tiny amounts. It may be involved in normal bone growth. However, scientists aren’t sure exactly what effects vanadium may have, or what amount might be helpful. They do know high doses of vanadium may be unsafe. Most of the studies using vanadium have been animal studies. Only a few clinical trials involving humans have been done. Because of that, vanadium isn’t recommended for any disease or condition. However, it may have an effect on blood sugar in people with diabetes. Our body contains about 20-25 mg., distributed in small amounts throughout, some being stored in the fat tissue.

      Vanadium content in the vegetable kingdom varies, mostly according to soil differences. It is generally present in low amounts in foods, probably most available in fats and vegetable oils, especially the unsaturated variety. Soy, sunflower, safflower, corn, and olive oils and the foods these oils come from all contain fair amounts of vanadium. Buckwheat, parsley, oats, rice, green beans, carrots, and cabbage also contain vanadium. Dill and radish have fairly high concentrations, while eggs have a moderate amount. Most fish are low, though oysters and herring have good levels.

Mineral Function

    • Catecholamine Metabolism
    • Lipid Metabolism
    • Reducing the production of cholesterol
    • Helpful in treating atherosclerosis and heart disease and could play a role in reducing incidence of heart attack

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19+ M/F 50 mcg-100mcg per day
    • Copper
      Copper is a mineral that’s found throughout the body. It helps your body make red blood cells and keeps nerve cells and your immune system healthy. It also helps form collagen, a key part of bones and connective tissue. Copper may also act as an antioxidant, getting rid of free radicals that can damages cells and DNA. Copper helps the body absorb iron, and your body needs copper to make energy. Your body doesn’t need much copper, and although many people may not get enough copper in their diet, it’s rare to be truly deficient in copper. Signs of possible copper deficiency include anemia, low body temperature, bone fractures and osteoporosis, low white blood cell count, irregular heartbeat, loss of pigment from the skin, and thyroid problems.

Mineral Function

    • Immune system
    • Artery strength
    • Forms hemoglobin from iron

Recommended daily requirement

  • Adolescent and adult males—1.5 to 2.5 mg per day.
  • Adolescent and adult females—1.5 to 3 mg per day.
    • Silicon
      Increasing evidence suggests that silicon is important in bone formation. The main source of silicon for humans is the diet, but the bioavailability of silicon from solid foods is not well understood. Silicon is used for weak bones (osteoporosis), heart disease and stroke (cardiovascular disease), Alzheimer’s disease, hair loss, and improving hair and nail quality. It is also used for improving skin healing; and for treating sprains and strains, as well as digestive system disorders. Do not confuse silicon with silicone. Silicone is the name of a group of materials resembling plastic that contain silicon, oxygen, and other chemicals. Silicone is used to make breast implants, medical tubing, and a variety of other medical devices. Green beans may be a particularly helpful food for providing us with the mineral silicon. This mineral—while less well known than minerals like calcium and magnesium—is very important for bone health and for healthy formation of connective tissue. Green beans have recently been shown to stack up quite well against other commonly-eaten foods as a good source of absorbable silicon.

Mineral Function

    • Enzyme action
    • Connective tissue

Recommended daily requirement

  • Many nutritionists believe the human body requires about 5-10 mg of this mineral each day.
    • Manganese
      Manganese is a mineral that is found in several foods including nuts, legumes, seeds, tea, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables. It is considered an essential nutrient, because the body requires it to function properly. People use manganese as medicine. Manganese is used for prevention and treatment of manganese deficiency, a condition in which the body doesn’t have enough manganese. It is also used for weak bones (osteoporosis), a type of “tired blood” (anemia), and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Manganese is sometimes included with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride in multi-ingredient products promoted for osteoarthritis. Look out for manganese that is “hidden” in some supplements. Certain supplements, including those commonly used for osteoarthritis (e.g., CosaminDS), contain manganese. When using these products, it’s important to follow label directions carefully. At doses slightly higher than the recommended dose, these products provide more than the Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) for adults, 11 mg of manganese per day. Consuming more than 11 mg per day of manganese could cause serious and harmful side effects.

Mineral Function

    • Bone health
    • Fewer mood swing
    • Decrease Epilepsy
    • Fights diabetes

Recommended daily requirement

  • no more 11mg per day M/F
    • Nickel
      Nickel is trace element that is necessary for the survival of bacteria, plants, and mammals. It is a hard, bright, silver-white metal that is present in soil, water, cocoa and chocolate, nuts, dried beans, peas, soya beans, spinach, lettuce, oatmeal, grains, fruits (including canned fruits), other vegetables (including canned vegetables) and leguminous seeds, as well as shellfish, salmon, hydrogenated shortenings, eggs, and milk. Drinking water and food are the main sources of nickel. The average American diet contains about 300 micrograms of nickel daily. There is no established recommended daily allowance (RDA) for nickel. Common amounts included in supplements range from 35 to 100 micrograms daily.
      Dietary nickel intake is variable, averaging about 150-300 micrograms daily. Dietary nickel comes predominantly from roots and vegetables, grain, and bread. Certain food items, such as cocoa and chocolate, nuts, dried beans, peas, soya beans, spinach, lettuce, oatmeal, grains, fruits (including canned fruits), other vegetables (including canned vegetables) and leguminous seeds, as well as shellfish, salmon, hydrogenated shortenings, eggs, and milk, may have very high nickel contents.

Mineral Function

    • There are presently no clear uses for nickel supplementation. Studies have shown that there are increased levels of nickel in patients following heart attacks, burns, and strokes, and with toxemia of pregnancy. Whether this is a partial cause or, as is more likely, a result of tissue metabolism or represents some other function of nickel is not as yet known. Decreased levels of nickel have been seen in psoriasis, in cirrhosis of the liver, and with kidney disease, but it has not been shown that nickel treatment helps any of these conditions.

Recommended daily requirement

  • less than 1 mg per day M/F
    • Iron
      Iron is a mineral that is naturally present in many foods, added to some food products, and available as a dietary supplement. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, an erythrocyte protein that transfers oxygen from the lungs to the tissues [1]. As a component of myoglobin, a protein that provides oxygen to muscles, iron supports metabolism [2]. Iron is also necessary for growth, development, normal cellular functioning, and synthesis of some hormones and connective tissue. Dietary iron has two main forms: heme and nonheme. Plants and iron-fortified foods contain nonheme iron only, whereas meat, seafood, and poultry contain both heme and nonheme iron. Heme iron, which is formed when iron combines with protoporphyrin IX, contributes about 10% to 15% of total iron intakes in western populations. Generally, men and non-menstruating women should receive about 10 mg of iron daily, menstruating or nursing women 15 mg, and pregnant women 30 mg daily.

Mineral Function

    • Hemoglobin formation
    • Immune function

Recommended daily requirement

  • 19-50 M/F 18 mg per day
  • 50+ M/F 8 mg per day
  • Doses larger than 20 mg may cause stomach upset, constipation and blackened stools.
    • Molybdenum
      Molybdenum is classified as a metallic element and found widely in nature in nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It is essential in trace amounts for human, animal and plant health. In humans and animals, it serves mainly as an essential cofactor of enzymes and aids in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Humans need only very small amounts of molybdenum, which are easily attained through a healthy diet. Deficiency is very rare in humans. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for men and women is 45 mcg (μg – micrograms) a day. On average, American adult males have a daily intake of about 109 mcg while women have a daily intake of about 76 mcg, well above the recommended amount.

Mineral Function

    • Enzyme action
    • Molybdenum is a vital part of three important enzyme systems—xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase—and so has a vital role in uric acid formation and iron utilization, in carbohydrate metabolism, and sulfite detoxification as well.

Recommended daily requirement

  • As with other newly recognized trace minerals, there is no specific RDA for molybdenum.
  • The amount provided by the average diet ranges widely, from 50-500 mcg. a day. A safe and sensible amount of added molybdenum is from 150-500 mcg. for adults and 50-300 mcg. for children. A molybdenum-rich yeast may be available as an added nutrient, which usually contains a lot of other minerals and B vitamins. Sodium molybdate, which recently has come on the market, can be taken by people who want more molybdenum, though intake should be limited to 500 mcg. daily. It is probably best to take molybdenum in a general multivitamin and to take 2-3 mg. of copper daily as well, because of the potential copper loss with molybdenum supplementation. Further research is required, but it appears that molybdenum is very important for optimum health and longevity.
    • Fluorine
      Fluorides, commonly known by the collective term fluoride, are compounds containing fluorine, the most reactive element found on the periodic table. The most common fluorides are sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride, which is found naturally in low concentration in bodies of water, especially well water, and in some foods. Fluoride can help prevent tooth decay and cavities, and promotes strong teeth and enamel. The addition of fluoride to most public water supplies is credited with a 40 to 60 percent reduction in tooth decay in both children and adults who live in fluoridated communities. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends adult males get four mg daily and adult females (including those who are pregnant or lactating) get three mg daily. Up to 10 mg of fluoride daily from food and water is considered safe for adults.
      The major source of dietary fluorine in the U.S. diet is drinking water. When water is fluoridated, it is adjusted to between 0.7 and 1.2 milligrams (mg) of fluoride per liter, which is 0.7-1.2 ppm. This concentration has been found to decrease the incidence of dental caries while minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis and other adverse effects. Approximately 62% of the U.S. population consumes water with sufficient fluorine for the prevention of dental caries.

Mineral Function

    • The primary function of fluorine is that it strengthens tooth enamel. Ingestion of fluorine decreases the incidence of dental caries or tooth decay.
    • Fluorine also increases the deposition of calcium, which strengthens bones.

Recommended daily requirement

  • Men adults 4 mg per day
  • Female adults 3 mg per day
    • Iodine
      Iodine is a trace element that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Thyroid hormones regulate many important biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and enzymatic activity, and are critical determinants of metabolic activity. They are also required for proper skeletal and central nervous system development in fetuses and infants. Recommended daily amount for female and men over the age of 19 of years is 150 mcg.

Mineral Function

    • Thyroid function
    • Vanadium
    • Circulation
    • Sugar metabolism

Recommended daily requirement

  • Males age 14 and older: 150 mcg/day
  • Females age 14 and older: 150 mcg/day
    • Cobalt
      Cobalt is another essential mineral needed in very small amounts in the diet. It is an integral part of part of vitamin B12, cobalamin, which supports red blood cell production and the formation of myelin nerve coverings. Some authorities do not consider cobalt to be essential as a separate nutrient, since it is needed primarily as part of B12, which is itself essential. As part of vitamin B12, cobalt is essential to red blood cell formation and is also helpful to other cells. Cobalt, as part of B12, is used to prevent anemia, particularly pernicious anemia; vitamin B12 is also beneficial in some cases of fatigue, digestive disorders, and neuro-muscular problems. There are no other known uses except for the radioactive cobalt-60 used to treat certain cancers. Toxicity can occur from excess inorganic cobalt found as a food contaminant. Beer drinker’s cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart) and congestive heart failure have been traced to cobalt introduced into beer during manufacturing. Increased intake may affect the thyroid or cause overproduction of red blood cells, thickened blood, and increased activity in the bone marrow. No specific RDA is suggested for cobalt. Our needs are low, and vitamin B12 usually fulfills them. The average daily intake of cobalt is about 5-8 mcg. It is not usually given in supplements.

Mineral Function

    • YAs part of vitamin B12, cobalt is essential to red blood cell formation and is also helpful to other cells.

Recommended daily requirement

  • No specific RDA is suggested for cobalt. Our needs are low, and vitamin B12 usually fulfills them. The average daily intake of cobalt is about 5-8 mcg. It is not usually given in supplements.
    • Selenium
      Selenium is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy. Selenium is important for reproduction, thyroid gland function, DNA production, and protecting the body from damage caused by free radicals and from infection. The amount of selenium that you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts are 15-70 micrograms (mcg) per day. With adults averaging 55 mcg per day. Decrease and increase for children and pregnant or breastfeeding females.

Mineral Function

    • Making special proteins, called antioxidant enzymes, which play a role in preventing cell damage
    • Helping your body protect you after a vaccination

Recommended daily requirement

  • Males age 14 and older: 55 mcg/day
  • Females age 14 and older: 55 mcg/day

Deficiency amounts have never been determined for many trace minerals, although several diseases have been linked with deficiencies of certain ones.
Mineral deficiency is not really a subject of controversy today. Soil depletion has been well documented since the US Senate made their study back in 1936. Their conclusion was that:
“…most of us are suffering from certain diet deficiencies which cannot be remedied until deplete soils from which our food comes are brought into proper mineral balance.”
“The alarming fact is that food now being raised on millions of acres of land that no longer contain enough minerals are starving us, no matter how much of them we eat.”
“Lacking vitamins, the system can make use of minerals, but lacking minerals, vitamins are useless.” Senate Document 264 74th Congress, 1936 [25]The same document went on to quantify the extent of mineral deficiency: “99% of the American people are deficient in minerals, and a marked deficiency in any one of the more important minerals actually results in disease.”
Makes you think right? This was in 1936… Do you think things have changed? NOThe Organic Consumers Association cites several other studies with similar findings: A Kushi Institute analysis of nutrient data from 1975 to 1997 found that average calcium levels in 12 fresh vegetables dropped 27 percent; iron levels 37 percent; vitamin A levels 21 percent, and vitamin C levels 30 percent. A similar study of British nutrient data from 1930 to 1980, published in the British Food Journal,found that in 20 vegetables the average calcium content had declined 19 percent; iron 22 percent; and potassium 14 percent. Yet another study concluded that one would have to eat eight oranges today to derive the same amount of Vitamin A as our grandparents would have gotten from one.

Fats
Fats are a type of nutrient that you get from your diet. It is essential to eat some fats, though it is also harmful to eat too many.
The fats you eat give your body energy that it needs to work properly. During exercise, your body uses calories from carbohydrates you have eaten. But after 20 minutes, exercise then depends on calories from fat to keep you going.
You also need fat to keep your skin and hair healthy. Fat also helps you absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K, the so-called fat-soluble vitamins. Fat also fills your fat cells and insulates your body to help keep you warm.
The fats your body gets from your food gives your body essential fatty acids called linoleic and linolenic acid. They are called “essential” because your body cannot make them itself, or work without them. Your body needs them for brain development, controlling inflammation, and blood clotting.
Fat has 9 calories per gram, more than 2 times the number of calories in carbohydrates and protein, which each have 4 calories per gram.
Types of Fats

  • Saturated fats raise your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol level. High LDL cholesterol puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke, and other major health problems. You should avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats.
    Keep saturated fats to only 10% of your total daily calories. Foods with a lot of saturated fats are animal products, such as butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils — coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils — also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol build up in your arteries (blood vessels). Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that can cause clogged, or blocked, arteries.
  • Eating unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated fats. There are 2 kinds of unsaturated fats: Mono-unsaturated fats, which include olive and canola oil
    Polyunsaturated fats, which include safflower, sunflower, corn, and soy oil
Protein
Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life. It’s also needed to make up muscle tissue which in turn helps to keep our bodies active, strong, and healthy.
Most protein is stored in the body as muscle, generally accounting for around 40-45% of our body’s total pool, so it makes sense that if you increase activity, perhaps to improve health and fitness or body composition, you also need to consider protein as an important food group in your diet. Proteins are part of every cell, tissue, and organ in our bodies. These body proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. The protein in the foods we eat is digested into amino acids that are later used to replace these proteins in our bodies.
Protein is found in dairy, meat, eggs, fish, beans and nuts, as well as in our protein shakes and bars. A sensible approach to meeting your daily protein requirements is to include a combination of these foods within your diet every day. Check out our Protein Calculator to assess your goal based protein needs and whether you are currently achieving this through protein dominant foods alone
Recommended daily requirement

  • Women ages 19 – 70+ 46g per day
  • Men ages 19 – 70+ 56g per day
Carbohydrate
They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this sugar for energy for your cells, tissues and organs. It stores any extra sugar in your liver and muscles for when it is needed. Carbohydrates are called simple or complex, depending on their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates include sugars found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. They also include sugars added during food processing and refining. Complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables and legumes. Many of the complex carbohydrates are good sources of fiber.
Recommended daily requirement

  • M/F 50-100 Grams per day This range is great if you want to lose weight effortlessly while allowing for a bit of carbs in the diet. It is also a great maintenance range for people who are carb sensitive.
  • 20-50 Grams Per Day This is where the metabolic benefits really start to kick in. This is the perfect range for people who need to lose weight fast, or are metabolically deranged and have obesity or diabetes. When eating less than 50 grams per day, your body will get into ketosis, supplying energy for the brain via so-called ketone bodies. This is likely to kill your appetite and cause you to lose weight automatically.

Did you like this tip?
If so please comment below and I will add more like it. Thank you for stopping by Duffitness, your Beachbody Coach. Not only did Beachbody help me lose weight and live healthier but it’s helped me in all aspects of my life. Thank you for reading, Chris Duffield.Always discuss any nutrition with your medical doctor before starting any diets, supplements or eating plan.

 

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